Over the past two centuries, a wide array of political parties have emerged in Muslim nations to exert their influence on the political process. The present book discusses the most influential of these political parties in Iran, the Arab world, Turkey (and the former Ottoman Empire), the Caucasus, Afghanistan, and the Indian subcontinent. While this book primarily focuses on political parties which integrated Islamic thought into their ideologies, it also discusses secular political movements - such as Communism - which wielded influence in the Islamic world. This book is part of a series of translations from the Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam (EWI) which was originally compiled in Persian. Other entries from this encyclopaedia which are available in English include Hadith, Hawza-yi 'Ilmiyya, History and Historiography, Muslim Organisations, Qur'anic Exegeses, Sufism, and Education in the Islamic Civilisation.